Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.

Министерство образования Республики Беларусь

Учреждение образования

Гомельский государственный университет

имени Франциска Скорины»

К.М. ДЕЙКУН, Е.А. ГИНЗБУРГ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ по

Внеаудиторному чтению

Для студентов I, II курсов

специальности 1 - 21 05 01 «История»

Гомель 2007

УДК

ББК

Рецензенты:

Л.С. Банникова, доцент, кандидат педагогических наук;

кафедра теории и практики английского языка

учреждения образования «Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины»

Рекомендовано к изданию научно-методическим советом учреждения образования «Гомельский государственный университет имени Франциска Скорины»

Дейкун К.М.

Английский язык [Текст]:

[практ. пособ. по внеаудиторному чтению

для студентов 1, 2 курсов спец. 1 - 21 05 01

«История»] / К.М. Дейкун, Е.А. Гинзбург;

Мин-во обр. РБ. - Гомель: УО «ГГУ им. Ф. Скорины», 2007. - с.

ISBN

Практическое пособие ставит своей целью обучение навыкам устной печи и Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. перевода и адресовано студентам 1, 2 курсов специальности 1 - 21 05 01 «История» для использования как на занятиях по английскому языку, так и при самостоятельной работе с текстами.

УДК

ББК

ISBN

© К.М. Дейкун, Е.А. Гинзбург, 2007

© УО «ГГУ им. Ф. Скорины», 2007

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

UNIT 1

ANCIENT BRITAIN

Ex.1 Translate and memorize the following words:

Inhabitant, temple, enemy, tribute, jewelry, crop, tribe, priest, skilled, fortified, to invade, to force, to protect.

Ex.2 Insert the words from exercise 1 in the gaps:

1. The early … of North America were Indians. 2. East-Slav … are common ancestors for Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian peoples. 3. The Belarusians formed a military alliance with Great Principality of Lithuania to Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. … themselves from Mongol and Germanic invaders. 4. After the departure of the Romans Britain was … by the German tribes of Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles. 5. Walls of earth will … the building against … bombing. 6. He was a … craftsman. 7. … is a sacred place. 8. The … of Belarus include: barley, wheat, rye and sugar beets. 9. This tribe was … to pay … . 10. He was a religious person and wanted to become a … . 11. You can buy a diamond ring at the … shop.

Ex.3 Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:

1. The early inhabitants of Great Britain were the Iberians. 2. Stonehenge, in Southern England, is one of the Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. many megalithic monuments. 3. Soon after 700 BC Britain was invaded by the Celts. 4. In 55 BC the Romans with Julius Caesar at the head invaded the British Isles and forced the population to pay tribute. 5 The Romans left the country only in the second half of the fifth century.

Ex.4 Read the text and give answers to the following questions:

1. Were the early inhabitants of Great Britain the Iberians? 2. Were the Celts skilledmetalworkers who made iron tools, weapons, and fine jewelry? 3. Can you recognize the roads built by the Romans today? 4. Were mostBritish towns with names ending with 'Chester', in Roman Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. times fortified camps?

Text

The early inhabitants of Great Britain were the Iberians. This race is supposed to have inhabited the land between 3000 and 2000 BC. Soon after 2000 BC a new race of Alpine people came from the east of Europe. The two peoples were closely related in culture. The ancient people left behind impressive monuments. Stonehenge1, in southern England, is one of the many megalithic monuments2 (structures of big stones). Most megalithic monuments are a mystery to the modern world. They were probably used to observe the movements of the sun, moon, and stars. They may have been used Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. as an observatory and a temple.

Soon after 700 BC Britain was invaded by the Celts. The people were skilled metalworkers who made iron tools, weapons, and fine jewelry. They raised sheep and cattle and grew crops. The Celts lived in tribes. Each tribe was ruled by its chieftain or king. Druids were very important members of a tribe. They acted as priests, lawgivers, and royal advisers. They were skilled in making medicines. The Celts had no written language and they passed on their laws, rituals, and legends by words of mouth.

From the third century BC, the Romans Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. began to build their empire. By the second century AD3, the Romans controlled most of western Europe, the near East, and northern Africa.



In 55 BC the Romans with Julius Caesar4 at the head invaded the British Isles and forced the population to pay tribute. The Romans kept their armies in Britain and had the country under control. They built walls to protect their camps. Even now you can see the Roman walls in Britain. Here is the well-known Hadrian's Wall, the Wall of Antoninus and others.

The Romans built roads to get from one place to another Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. quickly. In some parts of the country these roads form the basis of road communication today. The Roman roads can be recognized today because they run straight from point to point. They are usually made of chalk or small stones. The towns were fortified. Most British towns with names ending with 'Chester' were, in Roman times, fortified camps.

The Romans made a large and rich town, and named it Londinium. It was on the river Thames, where London is today. It became the capital city.

The Romans left the country only in the second half of the fifth Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. century. They had to take back their armies to protect the empire from the enemies on the continent.

1Стонхендж - одно из крупнейших мегалитических сооружений, состоящее из концентрических кругов камней, окруженных валом и рвом. Имело культовое значение. Относится к эпохе бронзы.

2Мегалиты - сооружения культового характера из огромных камней, относящиеся в основном к 3-2 тысячелетию до н. э. Известны в различных странах, особенно распространены в Западной Европе. Встречаются также на Кавказе, в Крыму и в Сибири.

3AD - “Anno Domini”-“in the year of Christ” - нашей эры

4Julius Caesar- Юлий Цезарь

Ex.5 Look through the text again and translate the following words and word-combinations:

Ancient, closely Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. related, to observe, impressive monuments, iron tools, cattle, to rule, royal advisor, medicine, road, chalk, fortified camp, to protect the empire, capital city.

Ex.6 Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:

Предполагают, что этот народ населял эту землю; вскоре после; эти древние люди оставили после себя; возможно, их использовали для наблюдения за движением планет; искусный; они выращивали овец и крупный рогатый скот; кельты не имели письменности; они передавали легенды; силой заставили население платить дань; быстро добраться из одного места в другое; римские дороги можно узнать (распознать); пришлось вывести свои армии; защищать империю от врагов.

Ex.7 Correct Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the statements if necessary:

1. Celts acted as priests, lawgivers, and royal advisers. 2. Stonehenge, in western England, is one of the many megalithicmonuments. 3. Romans built walls to protecttheir camps. 4. The Romans left the country only in the first half of the fifth century. 5. The Roman roads can be recognized today because they run straight from point to point.

Ex.8 Give questions to which the following sentences are the answers:

1. Soon after 2000 BC a new race of Apline people came from the east of Europe. 2. Megalithic monuments were probably used to observe the movements of the sun, moon, and stars Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.. 3. Celts raised sheep and cattle and grew crops. 4. Each tribe was ruled by its chieftain or king. 5. From the third century BC, the Romans began to build their empire.

Ex.9 Use the text to enlarge the given statements:

1. By the second century AD, the Romans controlled most … . 2. In 55 BC the Romans with Julius Caesar at the head … 3. The Romans kept their armies in Britain and … . 4. In some parts of the country these roads form the basis of … . 5. MostBritish towns with names ending with “Chester” were … . 6. The Romans made a large and rich town, and … . 7. They had to take Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. back their armies to protect the empire … .

Ex.10 Answer the following questions:

l. Who were the first inhabitants of Great Britain?

2. What did the ancient people leave behind them?

3. What are the megalithic monuments supposed to have been used for?

4. What kind of people were the Celts?

5. What have you known about the Roman invasion?

Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 6 of the plan in detail.

1. Soon after 700 BC Britain was invaded by the Celts.

2. The Romans made a large and rich town, and named it Londinium.

3. The early inhabitants of Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. Great Britain were the Iberians.

4. The Romans left the country only in the second half of the fifth century.

5. Stonehenge, in Southern England, is one of the many megalithic monuments.

6. In 55 BC the Romans with Julius Caesar at the head invaded the British Isles and forced the population to pay tribute.

Ex.12 Give a written summary of the text in 5-7 sentences.

UNIT 2

THE LONG PERIOD OF WARS (5th-11th centuries)

Ex.1 Translate and memorize the following words:

Departure, conquest, treaty, fleet, invasion, crown, branch, county, in the course of, brave, wise, to emerge, to prove.

Ex.2 Insert Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the words from exercise 1 in the gaps:

1. People always remember … warriors. 2. There are three … of power: the legislative, the executive, and judicial. 3. Alfred the Great built the English … . 4. Kent, Essex and Wessex are the English … . 5. He … to be a skilled craftsman. 6. William the Conqueror initiated the … of Britain. 7. They signed a … to settle all border disputes. 8. After the Romans’ … Britons had to defend themselves against the enemies. 9. The English … takes place in the middle of the 5th century. 10. William the Conqueror took the English … . 11. …the struggle of the Celts against the Anglo-Saxons many legends …, of which most famous is Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the legend of the Court of King Arthur. 12. The council of the tribe consisted of … men.

Ex.3 Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:

1. After the departure of the Romans (407) the Celts kept their independence for a short period of time. 2. In more than a century the Anglo-Saxons occupied most of the British Isles and formed a number of kingdoms. 3. For a long time the English people were at war with the Danes. 4. In 871 the king of Wessex became Alfred who won important battles. 5. In the end of the 10th century the Danes took the crown from Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the English for a short period of time. 6. William, Duke of Normandy, was crowned king of England, William I, and called William the Conqueror.

Ex.4 Read the text and give answers to the following questions:

1. Did the Celts keep their independence for a short period of time after the departure of the Romans? 2. Were the English people at war with the Danes? 3. Did Wessex become the leading kingdom at the beginning of the 9th century? 4. Did the Normans attack the coasts of England in the 10th century?

Text

After the departure of the Romans (407) the Celts kept their independence for a short Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. period of time. From the middle of the 5th century they had been attacked by the Germanic tribes of the Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles. Historians name the historical event “The Anglo-Saxon Conquest”. In the course of the struggle of the Celts against the Anglo-Saxons many legends emerged of which most famous is the legend of the Court of King Arthur.

In more than a century the Anglo-Saxons occupied most of the British Isles. They settled down and formed a number of small kingdoms in the country, among them - Kent, Essex, Wessex Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail., which now are counties of Great Britain. These kingdoms were at war with one another. The stronger kings took the land from the smaller kingdoms.

At first the invaders spoke different dialects but little by little the dialect of the Angles prevailed. Soon the people living in Britain were called the English after the Angles and the name England (the Land of the English) became widely used as the name of the whole country.

For a long time the English people were at war with the Danes who came from Denmark and the Northmen who came from Scandinavia. They are often Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. called as the Vikings. At first the Danes raided in small bands but later they came in larger numbers conquering one territory after another.

At the beginning of the 9th century Wessex became the leading kingdom and united the rest of England in the fight against the Danes. Since 829 the greater part of the country was united under the name England.

In 871 the king of Wessex became Alfred (born in 849). He proved to be a talented strategist, brave warrior and a wise statesman. He united small kingdoms to fight against the invaders. He turned undefended villages into fortified Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. towns. He won some important battles. As a result a treaty was signed between Alfred and the Danes in 886. According to this treaty England was divided into two parts: one part was under Danish rule and the other (Saxon England) remained under Alfred's rule.

Alfred saw that the best way to keep off the Danes was by fighting them at sea, and so he built ships bigger and faster than the Danish ships. King Alfred is considered to be the founder of the English fleet.

In the end of the 10th century the Danish invasions renewed. The invaders forced the Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. English people to pay a huge tribute. The Danes wanted to rule over the country and after many battles took the crown from the English. They were able to hold it for a short period of time (1017-1042).

Now the Normans began to attack the coasts of England from Normandy (France). In 1066 the decisive battle took place at Hastings in which the Normans won the victory. William, Duke of Normandy1, was crowned king of England, William I, and called William the Conqueror.

1Normandyappeared in the 9th century when another branch of the Northmen of Scandinavia conquered some Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. land from the French king, settled there and formed a territory called Normandy. They themselves were known as the Normans (нормандцы).

Ex.5 Look through the text again and translate the following words and word-combinations:

To keep independence, historical event, to settle, invader, little by little, widely used, small bands, to raid, talented strategist, wise statesman, fortified towns, to divide, important battles, to sign the treaty, rule, founder, decisive battle, conquer.

Ex.6 Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:

В период борьбы против; появилось много легенд; англосаксы захватили большую часть Британских островов; они поселились в этой стране Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.; они образовали много мелких королевств; воевали друг с другом; но мало-помалу (постепенно); это название стало широко использоваться; он оказался талантливым стратегом, смелым воином и мудрым государственным деятелем; он превратил беззащитные деревни в укрепленные города; был подписан договор; в соответствии с этим договором; основатель английского флота; состоялось решающее сражение.

Ex.7 Correct the statements if necessary:

1. The stronger kings took the land from the bigger kingdoms. 2. Since 829 the greater part of the country was united under the name Britain. 3. In 871 the king of Wessex became Alfred. 4. Alfred lost some important battles.

Ex.8 Give questions to which the following sentences are the Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. answers:

1. According to the treaty England was divided into two parts. 2. King Alfred is considered to be the founder of the English fleet. 3. In the end of the 10th century the Danish invasions renewed. 4. Now the Normans began to attack the coasts of England from Normandy (France).

Ex.9 Use the text to enlarge the given statements:

1. From the middle of the 5th century they had been attacked … . 2. Historians name the historical event … . 3. Kent, Essex, Wessex, are now … . 4. At first the invaders spoke different dialects but … . 5. Soon the people living in Britain were called … . 6. For a long time the English Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. people were at war with … . 7. Atfirst the Danes raidedin small bands but … . 8. At the beginning of the 9th century Wessex became … 9. Alfred provedto bea … . 10. In 1066 the decisive battle took place at … .

Ex.10 Answer the following questions:

l. With whom did the English have to fight after the departure of the Romans?

2. What have you learnt about Anglo-Saxon invasion?

3. Who were the Danes?

4. What did king Alfred do for his country?

5. When did the Norman invasion take place?

Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. detail.

1. For a long time the English people were at war with the Danes.

2. After the departure of the Romans the Celts kept their independence for a short period of time.

3. In 871 the king of Wesex became Alfred who won important battles.

4. In more than a century the Anglo-Saxons occupied most of the British Isles and formed a number of kingdoms.

5. William, Duke of Normandy, was crowned king of England.

Ex.12 Give a written summary of the text in 5-7 sentences.

UNIT 3

ENGLAND IN THE MIDDLE AGES (11th-I5th centuries)

Ex.1 Translate and memorize the following words:

Handicraft, peasant, plague Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail., shortage, disaster, treatment, wage, tax, to strengthen, to increase, to subdue, to maintain, to manage, to demand, to rebel, to spread.

Ex.2 Insert the words from exercise 1 in the gaps:

1. The country suffers from a … of technology. 2. Church was interested in … the feudal system. 3. The Black death and heavy … dealt a great blow (удар) at the towns in Britain.4. The workers … to increase their monthly … . 5. 26 April, 1986 there was a … in Chernobyl. 6. … or Black death carried away the lives of many people. 7. The peasant … against their landowners. 8. Towns became centers of … industry. 9. The army … its position. 10. The landlords Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. … the peasants’ rebellion. 11. He … to escape from prison.12. The epidemic … to neighboring countries.

Ex.3 Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:

1. The Normans strengthened and organized the feudal system of Saxon society. 2. By the end of the 13th century Wales became fully subduedby England. 3. In the middle of the 14th century the bubonic plague sweptover England, carrying death and destruction. 4. In 1381 peasants rebelled against their low wages, unfair treatment in the law courts, and new taxes. 5. With the Norman Conquest in the 11th century, the Norman-French language became the official language in the country 6. Gradually English became the Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. main language in speech and writing though it had many dialects. 7. In the 1470s William Caxton the printer set up his printing press at Westminster and printed the first book in English “The History of Troy”. 8. From the 12th to the 15th century is the great period of English Gothicarchitecture.

Ex.4 Read the text and give answers to the following questions:

1. Did the Normans strengthenand organize the feudal system of Saxon society? 2. Was Wales fully subdued by England by the end of the 13th century? 3. Was the Norman-French language the official language of the country? 4. Did an interest Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. in learning develop in England in the early Middle Ages?

Text

The Normans strengthened and organized the feudal system of Saxon society. Trade was increasing. The towns grew rapidly in size, importance and wealth, and became centers of handicraft production of all kinds. The whole economic development of the country from the 11th to the 14th century illustrates the increasing degree of exploitation of the peasant by the feudal lords and by the church.

By the end of the 13th century Wales became fully subdued by England. Attempts were made to conquer Scotland but it managed to maintain its independence for Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the next three centuries.

In the middle of the 14th century the bubonic plague swept over England, carrying death and destruction. After the plague, there was a shortage of workers in the towns and in the country-side. The disaster made worse poor living conditions of the peasants. The common people began to demand higher pay and better treatment from their lords. In 1381 peasants rebelled against their low wages, unfair treatment in the law courts, and new taxes. The rising had failed but it played a most important role in breaking down the feudal relations of production Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.. It was the first great English rebellion of peasant labors against the feudal landlords.

The Middle Ages brought the development of the English language, education, literature and architecture.

With the Norman Conquest in the 11th century, the Norman-French language became the official language in the country. It was the language of the ruling class and the court. However, it could not become the means of communication between the various layers of the society because the common people continued to speak English. And gradually English became the main language in speech and writing though it had many dialects. In the 14th Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. century the dialect of London and the South-East Midlands was accepted as the language standard.

Already in the early Middle Ages in England there developed an interest in learning. More schools were opened. About 1249 the University of Oxford was established. Shortly afterwards the university of Cambridge appeared (1284). A greater interest developed in medicine, astronomy, philosophy, and other sciences.

In the 1470s William Caxton1 the printer set up his printing press at Westminster and printed the first book in English - the “History of Troy”. It was an important event due to which the English language spread widely.

From Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the 12th to the 15th century is the great period of English Gothic architecture. Many fine cathedrals, beautiful churches, houses and cottages were built throughout the country.

1Willliam Caxton (1422-91) - the first English printer.

Ex.5 Look through the text again and translate the following words and word-combinations:

To grow rapidly, increasing degree, attempt, destruction, shortage of workers, poor living conditions, common people, higher pay, unfair treatment, low wage, new tax, feudal relation, peasant labors, rising, ruling class, layers of society, due to.

Ex.6 Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:

Экономическое развитие страны; предпринимались Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. попытки; ей удалось сохранить независимость; неся смерть и разорение; это бедствие ухудшило; нехватка рабочей силы; простые люди; начали требовать; восстали против; правящий класс; был принят; печатный ста­нок; напечатал свою первую книгу.

Ex.7 Correct the statements if necessary:

1. The disaster made worse poor living conditions of the landowners. 2. It was the last great English rebellion of peasant labors against the feudal landlords. 3. In the 14th century the dialect of Wales and the South-East Midlands was accepted as the language standard. 4. From the 12th to the 15th century is the great period of English Classicalarchitecture.

Ex.8 Give questions to Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. which the following sentences are the answers:

1. The towns grew rapidly in size, importance and wealth, and became centers ofhandicraft production of all kinds. 2. After the plague, there was ashortageof workers in the towns and in the country-side. 3. The common people began to demand higher pay and better treatment from their lords.

Ex.9 Use the text to enlarge the given statements:

1. In 1381 peasants rebelled against their low wages … . 2. It was the first great English rebellion of … 3. With the Norman Conquest in the 11th century, the Norman-French language became … 4. And gradually English became the main language in speech and Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. writing though … . 5. In the 14th century the dialect of London and the South-East Midlands was … . 6. A greater interest developed in medicine … . 7. In the 1470s William Caxton1 the printer set up his … . 8. Many fine cathedrals,beautiful churches … .

Ex.10 Answer the following questions:

l. What was the economic situation in England in the llth-14th century period?

2. What disaster hit the country in the middle of the 14th century?

3. What were the causes and results of the peasants' uprising?

4. How did the English language develop?

5. What was the role of William Caxton in the cultural life of England?

6. What Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. proves the development of education at that period of time?

Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 3 of the plan in detail.

1. Gradually English became the main language in speech and writing.

2. In the 1470s William Caxton the printer set up his printing press at Westminster.

3. The Normans strengthened and organized the feudal system of Saxon society.

4. In the mid of 14th century the plague sweptover England, carrying death and destruction.

5. From the 12th to the 15th century is the great period of English Gothicarchitecture.

6. By the end of the 13th century Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. Wales became fully subduedby England.

7. In the 11th century, the Norman-French language became the official language in the country.

8. In 1381 peasants rebelled against their low wages and new taxes.

Ex.12 Give a written summary of the text in 5-7 sentences.

UNIT 4

ENGLAND IN THE 16th CENTURY

Ex.1 Translate and memorize the following words:

Pope, explorer, benefit, mine, treasure, envy, slave, profit, rival, naval, supremacy, to order, to encourage, to load, to defeat.

Ex.2 Insert the words from exercise 1 in the gaps:

1. Spain which had the biggest colonies was Britain’s main … in the sea trade. 2. The Queen secretly … the Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. pirates and received part of their booty (добыча). 3. He sold his house and it brought him great … . 4. The master ordered his …to work harder. 5. The Queen … her subjects (подданные) to go out. 6. The men … the truck with strawberries. 7. The French fleet was … at Trafalgar. 8. The seamen raised the sunken (затонувший) … from the bottom of the sea. 9. His new car made him … of his friends. 10. He was an … of the Alps. 11. They opened a coal … in this district. 12. John like his father is a … officer. 13. There was naval … of Athens over the rest of the Greek states. 14. … is the head of the Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. Roman Catholic Church.

Ex.3 Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:

1. In the 16th century the long fight between the Popeand the English king came to its culmination. 2. The English seamen had started as explorerslater than the Portuguese and Spanish. 3. In the 16th century Spain and Portugal were the great colonial powers. 4. England accumulated power and wealthand was interested in colonial expansion. 5. Queen Elizabeth ordered sea-pirates to raid Spanish treasure ships and towns in the Americas. 6. Spain began to prepare for war against England. 7. The Spanish Armada was completely defeated by the English fleet. 8. The Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. victory of England meant the establishment of English naval supremacy.

Ex.4 Read the text and give answers to the following questions:

1. Did English king Henry VIII leave the Catholic Church and declare himself head of the Church of England? 2. Did the leaders of the English expedition reach Moscow in the winter of 1553? 3. Did the Spanish fleet cross the Atlantic loaded with treasure? 4. Was John Hawkins the first of Elizabeth's sea-dogs?

Text 1

In the 16th century the long fight between the Pope and the English king came to its culmination. In 1528 English king Henry VIII left the Catholic Church and Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. declared himself head of the Church of England. In seven years the Anglican Church was rec­ognized as the official church in the country.

The English seamen had started as explorers later than the Portuguese and Spanish. In the 1550s English merchants made an effort to find northeast way to China. Eventually .they sailed into the White Sea. Although a ship was lost north of Russia, another reached the North Dvina. In the winter of 1553 the leaders of the English expedition reached Moscow and were received by Ivan the Great. Thus trading links were established with Russia and for Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. the next two hundred years Archangelsk was the main trading port with England.

In the 16th century Spain and Portugal were the great colonial powers. Spain enjoyed the benefits of new colonies in the Americas. The mines and plantations here created great riches. Every year, the Spanish fleet crossed the Atlantic loaded with treasure. This aroused the envy of other European countries, especially England.

England accumulated power and wealth and was interested in colonial expansion. So the English monarchs and especially Queen Elizabeth sent the merchants to trade and found overseas settlements, and ordered sea-pirates Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. to raid Spanish treasure ships and towns in the Americas. The European nations - Spain, England, and France - were regularly at war with one another. Each country encouraged pirates to attack its enemies.

John Hawkins was the first of Elizabeth's sea-dogs (as the pirates were called). He took slaves from the west African coast and sold them to Spanish colonists in the West Indies. Queen Elizabeth actively supported slave-traders. The shameful slave trade brought great profits to the English merchants and the Crown.

Francis Drake1and other sea captains2 sailed across the Atlantic, attacked coastal forts, islands, Spanish ships Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. and brought treasure and much gold back to England. With the Spanish gold England built many good strong ships. This made England much stronger on the seas and oceans. England became Spain's main rival.

Spain began to prepare for war against England. A huge fleet of ships was built. It was the famous Armada: there were 130 ships in it. In 1588 the great Spanish Armada sailed into English waters to attack England.

The Spanish ships were very large; the English ships were much smaller, but they could sail faster and the sailors of them were better than the Spanish ones Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.. The Spanish Armada was completely defeated by the English fleet. Only half of Spanish ships came back to their country. It was a great victory for England, though the war continued for some time.

The victory of England meant the establishment of English naval supremacy, which was most important for England to expand its colonies.

1Sir Francis Drake(1540-96) - for 20 years the English sailor raided treasure ships and Spanish towns in the Americas. In 1580, after more than three years at sea, he became the second man to sail around the world (the first voyage was led by Ferdinand Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. Magellan3. Drake returned from the voyage around the world with his ship the Golden Hind, loaded with silver. Queen Elizabeth I knighted him. Drake helped to defeat the Spanish Armada in 1588. He died on voyage to the West Indies.

2English sea captainswho raided Spanish treasure ships were known as privateers4 because they sailed under their own flags, even though they were acting on behalf of their country.

3Ferdinand Magellan - Фердинанд (Фернан) Магеллан (ок. 1480-1521), португалец, выдающийся мореплаватель, совершил первое кругосветное путешествие в составе испанской экспедиции в 1519-1521 гг. Испанская экспедиция впервые пересекла воды Тихого океана.

4privateer - капер, т. е. капитан, частного Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. вооруженного судна, нападавшего на вражеские торговые суда.

Ex.5 Look through the text again and translate the following words and word-combinations:

To declare, official church, to make an effort, trading links, main port, colonial power, great riches, mines and plantations, envy, power and wealth, overseas settlements, to raid treasure ships, to attack the enemies, slave-traders, great profits, huge fleet of ships, sailor, to expand the colonies.

Ex.6 Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:

Предприняли попытку найти северо-восточный путь в Китай; случайно; были приняты Иваном Великим; так были установлены торговые связи с Россией Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.; Англия была заинтересована в; продавал их; активно поддерживала; эта постыдная торговля рабами приносила огромные прибыли; это сделало Англию сильнее; Испания начала готовиться к войне против Англии; Армада потер­пела полное поражение; это была великая победа; установление превосходства Англии на море; англиканская церковь была признана в качестве официальной церкви.

Ex.7 Correct the statements if necessary:

1. In twenty years the Anglican Church was rec­ognized as the official church in the country. 2. In the 1550s English merchants made an effort to find northeast way to Russia. 3. Spain enjoyed the benefitsof new colonies in Africa. 4. So the English monarchsand especially Queen Mary Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. sent the merchants to trade and found overseas settlements.

Ex.8 Give questions to which the following sentences are the answers:

1. The shameful slave trade brought great profits to the English merchants and the Crown. 2. John Hawkins took slaves from the west African coast and sold them to Spanish colonists in the West Indies. 3. Spain began to prepare for war against England.

Ex.9 Use the text to enlarge the given statements:

1. In 1528 English king Henry VIII left the Catholic Church and … . 2. Although a ship was lost north of Russia … 3. Thus trading links were establishedwith Russia and … 4. This aroused the envyof … . 5. The Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. European nations - Spain, England, and France were … . 6. Francis Drake and other sea captains sailed across the Atlantic and attacked … . 7. The English ships were much smaller, but … . 8. It was a great victory for England, though … .

Ex.10 Answer the following questions:

l. How were the trading links established between England and Russia?

2. What was the role of the so called sea-dogs in the policy of Queen Elizabeth?

3. What is called the Armada?

4. What was the result of the Anglo-Spanish conflict?

5. What did the victory of England mean for the country?

Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail. of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.

1. In the 16th century Spain and Portugal were the great colonial powers.

2. Spain began to prepare for war against England.

3. In the 16th century the long fight between the Popeand the English king came to its culmination.

4. Queen Elizabeth ordered sea-pirates to raid Spanish treasure ships and towns in the Americas.

5. The English seamen had started as explorerslater than the Portuguese and Spanish.

6. The victory of England meant the establishment of English naval supremacy.

7. England accumulated power and wealthand was interested in colonial expansion.


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Документ Ex.11 Reorder the items of the plan according to the logic of the text. Describe item 4 of the plan in detail.